How to Recognize and Manage Corneal Ulcers in Dogs

One common ocular ailment that affects our companions is corneal ulcers in dogs. The cornea is the outermost transparent layer of the eye which performs the important function of cleaning of the eye to provide clear vision. Corneal ulcers, which are essentially open sores on the corneal surface, can significantly compromise a dog’s ocular health and overall well-being. The more knowledge you have about the structure and function of the eye the more protection you can provide to your dogs.

A corneal ulcer in dogs refers to a wound or abrasion on the corneal surface, which can result from various causes such as trauma, foreign objects, infections, dry eye, or underlying medical conditions. Corneal ulcers in dogs vary in size and severity their effects range from simple to vision damage. 

Regardless of their origin, all corneal ulcers share the common potential to induce pain, discomfort, excessive tearing, squinting, and even more severe symptoms like eye discharge, cloudy corneas, and visible redness.

The cornea of the eye is performing the important function of transmitting light inside the eye. You can say that the cornea is a window where light enters the eye. Any disruption or damage to this delicate structure can lead to not only discomfort but also vision impairment. Moreover, because dogs rely heavily on their senses, a compromised visual ability could diminish their quality of life, hindering their ability to interact with their environment, engage in activities, and navigate their surroundings confidently.

Early detection of corneal ulcers in dogs is paramount. if treatment is not started on time it spreads very fastly and causes mover complications. Thus, dog owners and caregivers must be vigilant and attentive to any signs of ocular discomfort or abnormal behavior. If suspected, prompt veterinary intervention is essential. the doctor observes the eye very deeply and carefully to check the severity of the disease and start proper and accurate treatment.

Understanding Corneal Ulcers In Dogs

Corneal ulcers are a common eye condition in dogs that involve the erosion or loss of the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, transparent dome-shaped structure that covers the front part of the eye. The cornea is an important part of the eye it plays a very important role in focusing the light on the retina to create a clear image of the object which is present in front of the eye

Location of Corneal Ulcers

Corneal ulcers can occur on the surface of the cornea or penetrate deeper layers, depending on the severity of the condition. They usually develop on the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The outermost layer of the cornea is called the epithelial layer which is performing the function of protecting the eye from dust and debris and also protecting the eye from the microorganism which can cause infection in the eye. When this layer gets damaged, it can result in a corneal ulcer.

Importance of the Cornea

The cornea’s clarity and transparency are vital for clear vision, as it allows light to enter the eye and be refracted (bent) accurately onto the lens and retina. The cornea and the lens work together to focus light rays onto the retina’s light-sensitive cells, which then transmit visual signals to the brain via the optic nerve. Any disruption or irregularity in the corneal surface, such as in the case of a corneal ulcer, can lead to distorted or impaired vision.

Causes of Corneal Ulcers in Dogs

There are so many factors that can cause corneal ulcers in dogs by understanding these factors you can provide more protection to your dogs.

Foreign Objects

Foreign objects like dirt, grass seeds, sand, or small debris can lead to corneal ulcers. When the dust or other material attaches to the surface of the cornea it can cause damage to the surface by scratching the surface. The corneal epithelium, though protective, can still be damaged by sharp or abrasive materials, leading to ulcer formation.


Accidental injuries, scratches from branches, rough play with other animals, or contact with sharp objects can cause trauma to the cornea. Any impact or friction that exceeds the cornea’s resilience can result in a corneal ulcer. Even seemingly minor traumas can lead to significant damage due to the sensitive nature of the corneal tissue.


In the weakening of the cornea, bacterial and viral infections play a very beneficial role which ultimately causes corneal ulcers in dogs. Bacterial infections can occur secondary to trauma or due to other underlying conditions, and if left untreated, they can lead to ulceration. Viral infections like canine herpesvirus can also compromise the corneal integrity, making it more susceptible to ulcers. Fungal infections, although less common, can also cause corneal damage and ulceration.

Hereditary Factors

Certain dog breeds are genetically predisposed to corneal issues. Breeds with prominent eyes, shallow eye sockets, or exposed corneas, such as the Pug, Shih Tzu, and Bulldog, are more susceptible to corneal ulcers due to their anatomical characteristics. These structural features can make the eyes more vulnerable to environmental factors and injuries.

Dry Eye (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca)

Dry eye occurs when a dog’s tear production is reduced, leading to insufficient lubrication of the save the eye from pathogens tears are very important they can also provide lubrication to the eye. In cases of dry eye, the cornea becomes dry, irritated, and more susceptible to injuries and infections, which can ultimately result in corneal ulcers.

Recognizing Symptoms of Corneal Ulcers in Dogs

Corneal Ulcers In Dogs

It is very important to save your dog as early as possible so you can detect the symptoms of corneal ulcers in dogs. And start proper treatment

Dogs are not able to tell you their problems so it is your moral duty to observe your dog carefully and protect it from diseases like corneal ulcers in dogs.

Excessive Blinking and Squinting

Excessive blinking and squinting are common signs that a dog’s eyes are irritated or painful. Dogs with corneal ulcers often exhibit these behaviors as a response to the discomfort caused by the ulcerated cornea. Blinking helps to protect the eye by spreading tears over the surface while squinting reduces the amount of light that enters the eye and minimizes the friction between the eyelids and the ulcerated cornea. If you notice your dog blinking frequently or squinting more than usual, it could be an indication of a corneal ulcer.

Watery or Pus-Like Discharge

Abnormal eye discharge, such as excessive tearing (epiphora) or pus-like discharge (purulent discharge), can be indicative of a corneal ulcer. The body’s natural response to an injury or infection is to produce more tears to help flush away foreign particles and potentially harmful microorganisms. However, in the case of a corneal ulcer, the increased production of tears might not effectively alleviate the pain and discomfort. If the ulcer is also infected by any virus or bacteria it can cause pus formation in the eye and cause eye discharge. Discharge that is more opaque and yellowish can be a sign of infection, requiring prompt veterinary attention

Redness and Inflammation

Corneal ulcers often cause redness and inflammation of the affected eye. The blood vessels within the conjunctiva, the thin tissue covering the white part of the eye, may become more prominent, leading to a reddened appearance. Inflammation is a natural response of the body to injury or infection, and it can manifest as a pinkish hue around the eye.

Cloudiness or Opacity

Corneal ulcers often cause redness and inflammation of the affected eye. The blood vessels within the conjunctiva, the thin tissue covering the white part of the eye, may become more prominent, leading to a reddened appearance. Inflammation is a natural response of the body to injury or infection, and it can manifest as a pinkish hue around the eye.

Sensitivity to Light (Photophobia)

Dogs with corneal ulcers may exhibit sensitivity to light, known as photophobia. Photophobia is a discomfort or pain in response to bright light, which can exacerbate the irritation and pain caused by the ulcer. Dogs may squint, avoid well-lit areas, or show signs of discomfort when exposed to bright sunlight or indoor lighting.

Behavioral Changes

If the dog is suffering from eye pain you can clearly observe the pain from the behavioral changer of the dog. They might be more lethargic, restless, or less interested in their usual activities. Dogs in pain might also become more irritable, exhibit changes in appetite, and display a reluctance to interact with people or other animals. Behavioral changes are often an indication of the discomfort and distress associated with a corneal ulcer.

Diagnosis and Veterinary Care for Corneal Ulcers in Dogs

If you observe corneal ulcers in dogs it is very important to consult with the doctor as early as possible. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent complications, alleviate your dog’s discomfort, and preserve their eye health and vision.

Importance of Seeking Veterinary Attention

Corneal ulcers in dogs are very painful if proper treatment is not started on time it can cause other complications. The sooner the ulcer is diagnosed and treated, the better the chances of a successful outcome. If the treatment is not started on time it can cause other problems and complications which can lead to impaired vision or vision loss.

Veterinary Examination

During a veterinary examination, the veterinarian will perform a thorough assessment of your dog’s eye. This process  involves:

Visual Inspection: The veterinarian will visually examine the eye for redness, inflammation, cloudiness, and other visible signs of a corneal ulcer.

Assessment of Discharge: They will also check for any abnormal discharge or tearing.

Light Sensitivity: The veterinarian may assess your dog’s reaction to light to determine if photophobia is present.

Fluorescein Staining

One of the primary diagnostic methods for corneal ulcers is fluorescein staining. A special dye called fluorescein is applied to the surface of the eye. This dye is attached to the affected part of the eye which part is damaged or scratched. When blue light is shone onto the eye, the dye fluoresces and highlights these damaged areas as bright green or yellow spots. this method is very helpful for the doctor to check the location of the ulcers their size and their depth.

In-Depth Examination

If the ulcer is severe the doctor may perform some other tests. These examinations may include:

Corneal Seidel Test: This test helps determine whether the ulcer has caused a perforation in the cornea by observing the movement of fluorescein dye in response to the eye’s natural fluids.

Tonometry: This measures the pressure within the eye, which can provide information about potential complications or secondary issues.
Eye Culture: If infection is suspected, the veterinarian might collect a sample from the eye to identify the causative microorganism and determine the most appropriate treatment.

Treatment Options for Corneal Ulcers in Dogs

Proper treatment aims to promote healing, alleviate pain, prevent complications, and preserve your dog’s vision. Here are some common treatment options:

Topical Medications

Antibiotic Eye Drops: Antibiotics help prevent or treat bacterial infections that can accompany corneal ulcers. They also aid in preventing secondary complications.

Antimicrobial Eye Drops: These are used to combat fungal or viral infections that might be contributing to the ulcer’s development.

Pain Relievers: Pain relief is important to minimize discomfort. Veterinarians may prescribe pain-relieving eye drops or ointments to make your dog more comfortable.

Eye Lubrication

Applying lubricating eye drops or ointments can help keep the cornea moist and facilitate healing. Adequate moisture is important for proper cell regeneration and to prevent further damage from friction between the eyelids and the ulcerated cornea.

Cone or Collar Use

Using an Elizabethan collar (cone) prevents your dog from pawing at or scratching the affected eye. This is very important because it can save the dog from further trauma and complications. Dogs may instinctively try to rub or scratch their eyes when they’re irritated, which can worsen the ulcer.


In severe cases where the ulcer is deep, large, or not responding to conventional treatment, surgical intervention might be necessary. Surgical options could include procedures like conjunctival grafting, where healthy tissue is transplanted onto the ulcerated area to promote healing. These operations are performed by a well-skilled doctor who specializes in eye disease.

Addressing Underlying Causes

In addition to treating the ulcer itself, it is important to address any underlying causes that might have helped its development. For example, if dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) is a factor, treating the underlying dry eye condition can help prevent future ulcers.

Preventing Corneal Ulcers in Dogs

All these steps are necessary to prevent corneal ulcers in dogs. Here are some key steps to consider:

Regular Eye Care

Regular eye examinations by a veterinarian are essential for maintaining your dog’s eye health. Daily check can help you to observe any changes in the dog’s eye and also help you to prevent your dog from health conditions including corneal ulcers in dogs. Catching issues early allows for prompt intervention and treatment, preventing them from escalating into more serious problems.

Safe Environment

Ensure your dog’s environment is hazard-free to minimize the risk of eye injuries. Remove any sharp objects, keep your dog away from areas where debris or foreign objects are present, and be cautious during outdoor activities to prevent accidental trauma to the eyes.


Proper grooming practices can help prevent irritation that might lead to corneal ulcers:

Trim facial hair: Long facial hair, particularly around the eyes, can irritate the eyes and increase the risk of ulcers. Regularly trim the hair around your dog’s eyes to reduce the chances of debris getting trapped and causing irritation.

Keep nails trimmed: Overgrown nails can accidentally scratch the eyes if your dog paws at their face.

Addressing Underlying Issues

If your dog has underlying conditions that can predispose them to corneal ulcers, it’s important to manage these issues:

Dry Eye (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca): If your dog has reduced tear production, work closely with your veterinarian to manage dry eye effectively. This might involve using prescribed artificial tear solutions, medications, and other treatments to ensure adequate eye lubrication. Breed-Specific Predispositions: Be aware of your dog’s breed-related vulnerabilities. Breeds with prominent eyes or shallow eye sockets may require extra care to prevent injuries.

Prevent Trauma

Take steps to prevent trauma to your dog’s eyes:

  • Avoid rough play with other animals that could result in accidental scratches or impacts.
  • Use caution when introducing new objects or toys to your dog’s environment to prevent potential eye injuries.

Regular Cleaning

Regularly clean your dog’s eyes to prevent the accumulation of dirt, dust, or debris that could contribute to irritation and the development of ulcers. Remember that your dog’s overall health and well-being play a significant role in their eye health. Providing a balanced diet, regular exercise, and maintaining their overall health can contribute to strong immunity and better eye resilience.

Caring for a Dog with a Corneal Ulcer at Home

Caring for a dog with a corneal ulcer at home involves following your veterinarian’s instructions closely and providing a comfortable environment for your pet’s recovery. Here are some guidelines for administering medications and monitoring your dog’s progress:

Administering Medications

Eye Drops/Ointments: Wash your hands before handling the medication. Gently pull down the lower eyelid to create a pocket. Place the prescribed number of drops or a small strip of ointment in the pocket. Allow your dog to blink, spreading the medication across the eye. Avoid touching the eye with the dropper or ointment tube.

Pain Relievers: If your dog is prescribed pain relievers, follow the dosage instructions provided by your veterinarian. Some medications may be mixed with food to make administration easier.

Monitoring Progress

Observe Changes: Pay attention to your dog’s behavior and the appearance of its eye. Look for improvements in redness, discharge, squinting, and cloudiness.

Healing Timeline: Corneal ulcers can take time to heal. Your veterinarian will provide an estimated timeline for improvement. Keep in mind that healing might not be linear, and setbacks can occur.

Contact Your Vet: If you notice any worsening of symptoms or lack of improvement, or if your dog’s condition changes, contact your veterinarian immediately.

Prevent Further Trauma

  • Ensure your dog doesn’t paw at their eye by using an Elizabethan collar (cone) if necessary.
  • Keep their environment safe and free from hazards that could lead to accidental injuries.

Provide Comfort

Create a calm and quiet environment for your dog’s recovery. Reduce exposure to bright lights that might cause discomfort due to photophobia.

Follow-Up Appointments

Attend all follow-up appointments scheduled by your veterinarian. These appointments allow the vet to assess your dog’s progress, adjust the treatment plan if needed, and ensure that the ulcer is healing as expected.

Nutrition and Hydration

Ensure your dog is well-hydrated and eating a balanced diet. Proper nutrition supports overall healing and immune function.

Avoid Over-the-Counter Treatments

Do not use any over-the-counter medications or home remedies without consulting your veterinarian. Some treatments can worsen the condition or interact with prescribed medications.

Prevent the Spread of Infection

Wash your hands after administering medications to prevent the spread of potential infections.

When to Seek Veterinary Help for Corneal Ulcers in Dogs

While caring for a dog with a corneal ulcer at home is important, there are specific situations that require immediate veterinary attention. Timely intervention can prevent complications and ensure your dog’s eye health. Here are scenarios when you should seek professional help:

Worsening Symptoms: If you notice that your dog’s symptoms are worsening or not improving despite treatment, contact your veterinarian. This includes increased redness, discharge, cloudiness, squinting, or signs of discomfort.

Intense Pain: If your dog is displaying signs of intense pain, such as excessive pawing at the eye, continuous squinting, or whining, it’s crucial to seek veterinary care immediately.

Increased Swelling: If the area around your dog’s eye becomes more swollen, or if there’s swelling of the eyelids or conjunctiva, consult a veterinarian promptly.

Change in Behavior: If your dog becomes lethargic, loses appetite, or shows significant changes in behavior, it could indicate a complication or worsening condition.

Visible Change in the Ulcer: If you notice a visible change in the ulcer, such as its size, shape, or appearance, or if there’s any bleeding or unusual discharge, contact your vet.

Persistent Discomfort: If your dog continues to show signs of discomfort despite administering pain medications, it’s essential to consult your veterinarian to reassess the treatment plan.

Any Sudden Vision Changes: If you observe any sudden changes in your dog’s vision, such as bumping into objects or difficulty navigating, seek veterinary attention immediately.

New or Severe Symptoms: If your dog develops new symptoms or experiences severe symptoms that are not characteristic of a corneal ulcer, it’s important to have them examined by a veterinarian.


Corneal ulcers in dogs are a common and potentially serious eye condition that can lead to discomfort, pain, and even vision loss if left untreated. Here are the key takeaways to remember:

These are erosions or injuries to the outermost layer of the cornea, the transparent front part of the eye. Watch for excessive blinking, squinting, watery or pus-like discharge, redness, cloudiness, and sensitivity to light. These indicate potential corneal ulceration.

Ulcers can result from trauma, foreign objects, infections, hereditary factors, and underlying conditions like dry eye. Seeking immediate veterinary attention is crucial to prevent complications, alleviate pain, and preserve your dog’s eye health.

Treatment may involve topical medications, eye lubrication, cone use, and sometimes surgery for severe cases. Regular eye care, maintaining a safe environment, proper grooming, and addressing underlying issues can help prevent corneal ulcers. Administer prescribed medications as directed, monitor progress, prevent further trauma, and provide a comfortable environment for your dog’s recovery. Contact your veterinarian in case of worsening symptoms, pain, swelling, changes in behavior, or any sudden vision changes. Your veterinarian is your best resource for accurate diagnosis, tailored treatment, and guidance throughout your dog’s recovery.

Responsible pet ownership involves more than just providing food and shelter.

Eye care to protect the eyes from corneal ulcers in dogs is very is very important to consult with the doctor on regular bases and also provide your pet with a safe environment and proper grooming. also, observe your dog on regular bases if you notice any change consult with the doctor, you’re taking a crucial step toward providing a happy, healthy life for your furry companion.

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